To make citation practices more consistent across source types and formats, this guide reflects changes in the 9th Edition of the MLA Handbook. As a result, there are some small but important changes to the punctuation and formatting of Works Cited entries. The in-text citation guidelines are relatively unchanged.
For a summary of the changes, visit the MLA Website.
The following examples show how to punctuate around quotations and citations. Note that if you provide the author's name in the sentence, you don't have to include it in the parentheses.
The current MLA Handbook uses
The following list explains what to include in a parenthetical citation in various situations. These formats apply to both electronic and print sources.
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