To make citation practices more consistent across source types and formats, this guide reflects changes in the 9th Edition of the MLA Handbook. As a result, there are some small but important changes to the punctuation and formatting of Works Cited entries. The in-text citation guidelines are relatively unchanged.
For a summary of the changes, visit the MLA Website.
The following examples show how to punctuate around quotations and citations. Note that if you provide the author's name in the sentence, you don't have to include it in the parentheses.
The current MLA Handbook uses
The following list explains what to include in a parenthetical citation in various situations. These formats apply to both electronic and print sources.
Follow your professor's instructions when considering the use of generative AI tools (such as ChatGPT). If you have permission to use these programs, please cite the AI content (ideas and/or words) you incorporate into your text. Your professor might provide instructions for citing outputs from generative AI sources. If this is the case, please follow the instructions provided.
If you have been asked to use the MLA Style Guide for all citations, the Modern Language Association (MLA) has issued a thorough set of instructions on their website.
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