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Cite Your Sources: Chicago Notes & Bibliography

What is Chicago notes & bibliography system?

  • Uses superscripted footnotes or endnotes as the in-text citation.
  • Uses both a list of notes (either endnotes or footnotes) AND a Bibliography. 
  • Footnotes are at the bottom of the page, and endnotes are in a list at the end of the paper, immediately before the Bibliography. 
  • Preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts.
  • Information in this guide is based on the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style

How do I format my in-text citations?

  • To create a citation and reference, insert a superscripted note number at the end of the sentence or clause, or immediately following a quotation.​
  • In Microsoft Word, this can be done by clicking “Insert Endnote” or "Insert Footnote" under the “References” tab.
    • As Spivak points out, "the driving force of the philosopher's project is desire."1

How do I format my notes?

  • At the bottom of the page (footnote), or at the end of the paper (endnote immediately before the Bibliography), include a note that provides bibliographic information.

1. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "The Letter as Cutting Edge,” in In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics (New York and London: Routledge, 1987), 7.

  • ​​​Subsequent references to the same work can be shortened to include only the author's last name, short title of the work, and relevant page numbers.

​5. Spivak, "The Letter," 10.

  • Names should always be given in the order and form they appear on the title page. Authors may be individuals or organizations
  • Even if more than one reference is being cited at a single location in the text, use a single note reference. In the note, separate the citations with semi-colons, and place them in the same order as the text material to which they refer.

4. Rebecca Herissone, Music Theory in Seventeenth-Century England (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 146; Gary K. Browning, Plato and Hegel: Two Modes of Philosophizing about Politics (New York: Garland, 1991), 87.

How do I format my bibliography?

  • The bibliography appears at the end of the paper, on a new, separate page. 
  • The title should be Bibliography. Centre it at the top of the page. Don't put it in bold or underline the title.
  • An entry in the Bibliography provides the full bibliographic information for the works cited in the text.
  • The bibliography include sources that you cite in your assignment, but may include relevant sources that you consulted but did not cite.
  • List your sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Authors should be listed by Last name, First name. Authors may be individuals or organizations.
  • Entries are single spaced.
  • Use a hanging indent after the first line of the entry.
  • The main difference between an entry in a Reference List (for Chicago Author-Date system) and in a Bibliography (for Chicago Notes & Bibliography system) is the placement of the date.

An article in a journal or periodical (online)


#. Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page, doi/url.

8. Stephanie Hom Carey, “The Tourist Moment,” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61, doi:10:48903243/342890.


Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page range. doi/url.

Hom Carey, Stephanie. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61-77. doi:10:48903243/342890.

  • Accessed date is usually considered unnecessary unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source. The DOI is preferred over the URL.

Book, one author

  • Names should always be given in the order and form they appear on the title page. Authors may be individuals or organizations.


#. Firstname Lastname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

1. Desmond Morton, A Short History of Canada (Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001), 17.


Lastname, Firstname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Morton, Desmond. A Short History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001.

Part of an edited book or collection


FirstName LastName, "Title of Part," in Title of Edited Book or Collection, ed. EditorFirstName LastName (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page.

5. L. Ramon Veal and Sally Ann Hudson, “Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing,” in Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, ed. Brian Huot and Peggy O’Neill (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009), 16.


LastName, FirstName. "Title of Part." In Title of Edited Book or Collection, edited by EditorFirstName LastName, pp-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, date. 

Veal, L. Ramon, and Sally Ann Hudson. “Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing.” In Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, edited by Brian Huot and Peggy O’Neill, 13-18. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Looking for other examples?

Check out the More Examples tab for more formatting options.

Generative AI (e.g. ChatGPT)

Follow your professor's instructions when considering the use of generative AI tools (such as ChatGPT). If you have permission to use these programs, please cite the AI content (ideas and/or words) you incorporate into your text. Your professor might provide instructions for citing outputs from generative AI sources. If this is the case, please follow the instructions provided.

If you have been asked to use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) Notes and Bibliography system, instructions have been provided on this Q&A page. Please read carefully because instructions for Notes and Bibliography as well as Author-Date are explained in the same text. The Writing Services team will continue to monitor announcements from CMOS for further updates.

Resources to help with writing

Guide: Plagiarism and Academic IntegrityGuide: Cite Your SourcesLink to Guide: Write clearly: Grammar

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