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Cite Your Sources: Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Notes and bibliography

Chicago Notes and Bibliography style documents sources through notes within the body of the paper (either footnotes or endnotes) and a bibliography at the end of the paper.

An entry in the bibliography provides the full bibliographic information for the works cited in the text. The main difference between an entry in a Reference List (for Chicago Author-Date system) and in a Bibliography (for Chicago Notes & Bibliography system) is the placement of the date.

Book, one author

  • Names should always be given in the order and form they appear on the title page. Authors may be individuals or organizations.

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

1. Desmond Morton, A Short History of Canada (Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001), 17.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Morton, Desmond. A Short History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001.

Book, two or three authors

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

2. Matthys Levy and Mario Salvadori, Why Buildings Fall Down (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2002), 44.
3. H. Ramsey Fowler, Jane E. Aaron, and Murray McArthur, The Little, Brown Handbook, 3rd ed. (Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2001), 278.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Levy, Matthys, and Mario Salvadori. Why Buildings Fall Down. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2002.

Fowler, H. Ramsey, Jane E. Aaron, and Murray McArthur. The Little, Brown Handbook. 3rd  ed. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2001.

Book, more than three authors

  • List up to 10 authors in the Bibliography, but only 1, followed by “et al.” (“and others”), in the Notes. For more than 10 authors, list the first 7, then “et al.”.

Notes:

4. Antonette Healey et al., Dictionary of Old English: E, 6th ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), 16-17.   

Bibliography:

Healey, Antonette, Joan Holland, David McDougall, Ian McDougall, Nancy Speirs, and Pauline Thompson. Dictionary of Old English: E. 6th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Part of an edited book or collection

Notes:

FirstName LastName, "Title of Part," in Title of Edited Book or Collection, ed. EditorFirstName LastName (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page.

5. L. Ramon Veal and Sally Ann Hudson, “Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing,” in Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, ed. Brian Huot and Peggy O’Neill (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009), 16.

Bibliography:

LastName, FirstName. "Title of Part." In Title of Edited Book or Collection, edited by EditorFirstName LastName, pp-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, date. 

Veal, L. Ramon, and Sally Ann Hudson. “Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing.” In Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, edited by Brian Huot and Peggy O’Neill, 13-18. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Editor as author

  • When no author appears on the title page, list the work by the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s).

Notes:

6. Ori Z. Soltes, ed., Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages (London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 280.

Bibliography:

Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.

An article in a journal or periodical (print)

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page.

7. Jean-Jacques Flint and J. Lolcama, “Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario,” Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, no. 1 (1986): 77.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page range.

Flint, Jean-Jacques, and J. Lolcama. “Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario.” Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, no. 1 (1986): 75-84.

An article in a journal or periodical (online)

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page, doi/url.

8. Stephanie Hom Carey, “The Tourist Moment,” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61, doi:10:48903243/342890.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #, no. # (date): page range. doi/url.

Hom Carey, Stephanie. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 61-77. doi:10:48903243/342890.

  • Accessed date is usually considered unnecessary unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source. The DOI is preferred over the URL.

Book, no author

  • Start with the title.

Notes:

9. Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics (New York: Random House, 1998), 82.

Bibliography:

Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. New York: Random House, 1998.

An edition other than the first

  • For numbered editions other than the first, use, for example, 2nd ed., 3rd ed., etc.

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, Title, edition information (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

10. Douglas W. Rae, The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, rev. ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 22-26.
11. Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility, ed. Claudia Johnson. (New York: Norton, 2001), 32.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. Title. Edition information. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Rae, Douglas W. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. Rev. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971.

Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Edited by Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton, 2001.

A multiple volume work

  • Cite a single volume in Notes and in Bibliography: 

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, Title of Volume, vol. # of Title of Series (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of volume).
 
12. Mary Rubio and Elizabeth Waterston, eds., Volume IV: 1929–1935, vol. 4 of The Selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998). 

13. F. A. Hayek, Contra Keynes and Cambridge: Essays, Correspondence, vol. 9 of The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995). 

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Volume. Vol. # of Title of Series. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of volume.

Rubio, Mary, and Elizabeth Waterston, eds. Volume IV: 1929–1935. Vol. 4 of The Selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998. 

Hayek, F. A. Contra Keynes and Cambridge: Essays, Correspondence. Vol. 9 of The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. 

  • When citing an entire multivolume, multiyear work in the Bibliography: 

Lastname, Firstname, ed. Title of Entire Work. # vols. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date range of entire work. [use an en-dash after the date of the first volume in the date range if the work has not yet been completed] 

Rubio, Mary, and Elizabeth Waterston, eds. The Selected Journals of L.M. Montgomery. 5 vols. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985–2004. 

Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951–63.

Newspaper article

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, date, edition information (if any), URL (if online).

14. Teresa Pitman, “Workshop Speaker Aims to Make Writing Easier,” at Guelph, February 10, 2011, http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2011/02/workshop-speaker-aims-to-make-writing-easier.

Bibliography:

  • Newspapers are often cited only in notes and parenthetical references, and may not always be included in bibliographies. This is particularly true of newspaper articles with no author (called unsigned newspaper articles). If a bibliographic entry is required, use the following format:

Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, edition information (if any), date. URL (if online).

Pitman, “Workshop Speaker Aims to Make Writing Easier.” at Guelph. February 10, 2011. http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2011/02/workshop-speaker-aims-to-make-writing-easier.

A translation

Notes:

#. Firstname Lastname, Title, trans. Translator Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

15. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, trans. Marianne Cowan (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955),  27.

Bibliography:

Lastname, Firstname. Title. Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, date.

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. Beyond Good and Evil. Translated by Marianne Cowan. Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955.

A work cited in another source

  • Limit your use of this method by finding the original source if possible. If the original is unavailable, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.

Notes:

16. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

Bibliography:

Zukofsky, Louis. “Sincerity and Objectification.” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981

A course reader

  • Treat an article in a course reader as part of an edited book or collection, citing the instructor as editor (unless another editor is indicated).
  • Use the page numbers assigned in the reader, not the page numbers of the original source. An annotation about the original publication may follow the citation.

Notes:

17. Andrew S. Winston and Daniel J. Blais, “What Counts as an Experiment?: A Transdisciplinary Analysis of Textbooks, 1930-1970,” in PSYCH*1100 Principles of Behaviour Course Reader, eds. M. Billig and H. Davis (Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, Office of Open Learning, 2003), 6. Previously published in American Journal of Psychology 109, no.4 (1996):599-616.
 

Bibliography:

Winston, Andrew  S., and Daniel J. Blais. “What Counts as an Experiment?: A Transdisciplinary Analysis of Textbooks, 1930-1970.” In PSYCH*1100 Principles of Behaviour Course Reader, edited by M. Billig and H. Davis, 3-19. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, Office of Open Learning, 2003. Previously published in American Journal of Psychology 109, no.4 (1996):599-616.

A course manual

  • Treat these as books with the instructor as author (unless another author is indicated).

Notes:

18. T. Stengos, ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics Course Manual (Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, 2003), 14.

Bibliography:

Stengos, T. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics Course Manual. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, 2003.

Lecture notes

  • Treat these as books or websites with the instructor as author if they are published.
    • Course or lecture notes may be considered “published” if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor’s permission.
  • If they are unpublished, cite them using the instructor’s name, the title of the course or topic of the lecture (likely available from your course syllabus), and the date of the lecture

Notes:

#. Instructor's Name, “Title of Course” (Lecture, University Name, City, Province, Date of lecture).

19. Howard Spring, “History of Jazz” (Lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, October 7, 2004).

Bibliography:

Instructor’s Name, “Title of Course.” Lecture, University Name, City, Province, Date of lecture.

Spring, Howard. “History of Jazz.” Lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, October 7, 2004.

A website

  • Locate as much of the information as possible. If there is no author given, use the owner of the site. If there's no owner, start with the title.
  • Include a publication date or date of revision for the site. If you are not able to determine this date, you may provide an access date instead. 

Notes:

#. Author of the content, “Title of the Page,” Title/owner of site, date (of publication, revision, access), URL.

20. Rebecca S. Nowacek “Putting Grammar in Its Place...But Making Sure It Has a Place,” Writing across the Curriculum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005, accessed February 15, 2011, http:// mendota.english.wisc.edu.

Bibliography:

Author of the content as Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Page.” Title/owner of the site. Date (of publication, revision, access). URL.

Nowacek, Rebecca S. “Putting Grammar in Its Place...But Making Sure It Has a Place.” Writing across the Curriculum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005. Accessed February 15, 2011. http:// mendota.english.wisc.edu.

Personal communications (emails, text messages, or conversations)

  • References to personal communications are usually stated in the text or in a note. 

Notes:

#. Author, type of communication, date.

21. Simon Streatfeild, letter to author, March 28, 2001.
22. Paul Martin, email message to author, February 3, 2004.

  • Do not include an email address in citations; if it is essential, you must obtain permission from the owner.

Bibliography:

  • Personal communications are normally not included in the Bibliography.

An electronic mailing list

  • A URL alone is never enough; always provide additional information about the posting.

Notes:

#. Author of Posting to Name of List, Date of Posting, access date if required, URL.

23. Nico Ween to Humanist Discussion Group, August 5, 2004, http:// www.digitalhumanities.org/sampleURL.

Bibliography:

  • These types of sources are normally not included in the Bibliography

An interview

  • Treat published or broadcast interviews like a chapter in a book or article in a periodical.
  • Provide all pertinent information about unpublished interviews in the notes.

Notes:

#. Person interviewed (any pertinent description), interviewer, place/date of interview, location of any available transcript or tape.

24. Jacqueline Murray (Dean of Arts, University of Guelph), interview by Susan Riggs, McLaughlin Library, October 2004.

25. Madeleine Albright, interview by Jon Stewart, The Daily Show, Comedy Network, October 26, 2004.

26. John Lukacs, “History in a Democratic Age,” interview by Bruce Cole, Humanities 24, no. 1 (January/February 2003), 7.

Bibliography:

Albright, Madeleine. Interview by Jon Stewart. The Daily Show, Comedy Network, October 26, 2004.

Lukacs, John. “History in a Democratic Age.” Interview by Bruce Cole. Humanities 24, no. 1 (January/February 2003): 6-9, 46-50.

  • Unpublished interviews are normally not included in the Bibliography.

A government publication

  • If the report names an author, start with that. Otherwise, use the ministry or agency responsible for the report.

Notes:

#. Author, Title of Report, Other Identification Information (Place of Publication: Publisher, date).

27. Mordechai Rozanski, Investing in Public Education: Advancing the Goal of Continuous Improvement in Student Learning and Achievement, prepared on behalf of the Education Equality Task Force (Toronto: Ministry of Education, 2002).

28. Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, Employment Profile, ISSN 1492-045X (Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, 2002).

Bibliography:

Author. Title of Report. Other Identification Information. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.

Rozanski, Mordechai. Investing in Public Education: Advancing the Goal of Continuous Improvement in Student Learning and Achievement. Prepared on behalf of the Education Equality Task Force. Toronto: Ministry of Education, 2002.

Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. Employment Profile. ISSN1492-045X. Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, 2002.

Archival material

Notes:

Author First and Last Name, Title or description of item, Date of item as Day Month Year (if available), Name of collection, Name of repository.

29. E. J. Oliver, manuscript cookbook, ca. 1916, Una Abrahamson Canadian Cookery Collection, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Canada.

  • A citation note for a communication (e.g., letter, memorandum, telegram) starts with the name of the letter writer, followed by to, followed by the name of the recipient: 

30. Jane M. Doe to John E. Smith, telegram, 26 January 1937, John E. Smith Papers, University of Chicago Library. 

Bibliography:

Either Collection name / authors of the items in the collection / or the repository for the collection as Author Last, Author First. Name of collection. Name of repository, Location.

Abrahamson, Una. Canadian Cookery Collection. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Canada.

Smith, John E., Papers. University of Chicago Library. 

  • In the second bibliography entry above, a comma is added after the initial to avoid misreading.
  • A specific item (e.g., Oliver’s manuscript cookbook) is usually NOT included in the bibliography unless only one item from a collection is cited. If a specific item is to be included in the bibliography, start with the author of the item: 

Author of the item as Last name, First name. Title or description of item. Date of item as Day Month Year. Call number, File number, Box number. Name of collection. Name of repository, Location.

Oliver, E. J. Manuscript cookbook. ca. 1916. XM1 MS A117059. Una Abrahamson Canadian Cookery Collection. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Canada.

Ancient source from Perseus Digital Library

Each classical source in Perseus Digital Library includes the bibliographical information from the original edition at the end of the selected passage. Use the bibliographical information and then add the information pertaining Perseus Digital Library, including date of access and editor-in-chief. The footnote should contain the same information.

Notes:

The footnote should also include the book and chapter numbers that are used in the essay.

For a second footnote referring to the same classical source, refer to the author’s name, title of the classical source, book number and chapter number.

30. Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, trans. by Sir James George Frazer, 2 vols. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1921; Preseus Digital Library, n.d.), 1.1.4, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Apollod.

Bibliography

Apollodorus. Apollodorus, The Library. Translated by Sir James George Frazer, 2 vols. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press: 1921; Perseus Digital Library, n.d. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Apollod.

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