Note: Information in this guide is based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This manual is now available as an eBook.
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In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative.
In parenthetical citations, the author name and year of publication appear in parentheses.
Include the author's last name and year of publication, separated by a comma and enclosed in brackets.
This hypothesis was tested (Smith, 2010).
In narrative citations, the author appears in the text of the sentence and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name.
Include an in-text citation in the text immediately following the information that is being referenced.
Smith (2010) tested this hypothesis.
In some cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In these cases, do not use parentheses.
In 2010, Smith tested this hypothesis.
If there is no author, use the ﬁrst words from the title of the article or book. For an article title use quotation marks, and for a book title use italics.
("Effects of Alcoholism," 2015)
(Studies of Alcohol, 1999)
When there are two authors, use the ampersand (&) in the parenthetical citation, but not in the sentence.
(Novak & Gowin, 1984)
Novak and Gowin (1984) reported...
When there are three or more authors, use “et al.” in the parenthetical citation and in the sentence. Note the comma in the parentheses.
(Winters et al., 1984)
Winters et al. (1984) reported...
When there is a group author with an abbreviation (such as an organization), define the abbreviation only in the first citation, and for all subsequent citations use the abbreviation.
First citation: (Canadian Mental Health Association [CMHA], 2019)
Subsequent citations: (CMHA, 2019)
First citation: The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA, 2019)…
Subsequent citations: CMHA (2019)
Although it is not necessary to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation for a paraphrase, you can include one to help readers find the relevant passage in a long work, such as a book. You can add a comma after the year, and then insert the page number.
(Zelickson & Robbins, 1986, p. 24)
When using a direct quotation, always provide the author, year, and page number in the in-text citation. For a single page, use the abbreviation “p.” and for multiple pages, use the abbreviation “pp.”
(Feng, 2017, p. 78)
(Feng, 2017, pp. 59-67)
(Feng, 2017, pp. 46, 52)
Once you have used a narrative citation in a paragraph, do not repeat the year in subsequent narrative citations in that same paragraph.
First narrative citation in paragraph: Meyer (2016) found that…
Subsequent narrative citations: Meyer discovered…; She noticed that…
However, continue to include the year in all parenthetical citations:
e.g., Meyer (2016) reported that Type 2 diabetes was primarily due to obesity and lack of exercise in people who are genetically predisposed. Meyer also found that this type makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes. The other 10% is due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes (Meyer, 2016).
The reference list should be placed at the end of your paper on a separate page entitled "References".
Put the list in alphabetical order by author. Double-space the list, and use a hanging indent to format all entries.
Titles of books and periodicals should always be in italics; titles of articles should be in regular type without quotation marks.
List authors by "Last name, First initials."
If there's no author, start with the article title.
If your article has a Digital Object Identifier or DOI, you should include this number instead of the website URL. Do not include a date of retrieval when using the DOI.
Format both DOIs and URLS as hyperlinks that begin with “https://” or “http://” and omit the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from.”
... (Sobell, Cunningham, & Sobell, 1996).
Author(s), A. A. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page–page.
Sobell, L. C., Cunningham, J. A., & Sobell, M. B. (1996). Recovery from alcohol problems with and without treatment: Prevalence in two population surveys. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 966-972.
... (McKay & Zakanis, 2009).
Author, A. A. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. https://doi.org/xxxx
McKay, M., & Zakanis, K. (2009). The impact of treatment on HPA axis activity in unipolar major depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(2), 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jpsychires.2009.01.012
Author, A. A. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. URL
Patterson, Q. S. (1999). Psychology and the student. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 23(3), 225-227. http://www.sciencedirect.com/publications
… was tested (Smith, 2010).
… was tested (Statistics Canada, 2008).
Author, A. A. (Date). Title (Edition). Publisher Name.
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
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