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Silvestri, M., & Crowther-Dowey, C. (2008). Gender and crime. SAGE Publications.
Franklyn et al. (2017) found …
Or … (Franklyn et al., 2017).
When there are three or more authors, use “et al.” in the parenthetical citation and in the sentence. Note the comma in the parentheses.
If the first authors of two different sources have the same last name, e.g., (Franklyn, Rosen, Lock, Smith, & Chen, 2017) and (Franklyn, Rosen, Connor, Murray, & Ehrenfield, 2014), cite as many names as you need to distinguish between the two texts.
In this case, you would abbreviate the first citation to “(Franklyn, Rosen, Lock, et al., 2014)” and the second to “(Franklyn, Rosen, Connor, et al., 2014).”
DeFilippis, J., Fisher, R., & Shragge, E. (2010). Contesting community limits and potential for local organizing. Rutgers University Press.
For the first and all subsequent citations in the paper, the author’s names can be shortened to the first name plus et al.:
… (DeMarcos et al., 1998).
Also see Exception above under Three to Twenty Authors.
List up to and including twenty authors. If there are more than twenty, include the ﬁrst nineteen, then an ellipsis (...), then the last author's name:
DeMarcos, D. J., Alexander, T. G., Turner, W. G., Zebrinsky, R. T., Williams, A. G., Thomson, T. R., Wanzhou, K.T., McParland, K.L., Philips, D. E., Kenney, T. O., Ford A. E., Carney Y.T., Winfrey, K.R., Jade, R.E., Koskinen, R.T., Draisaitl, T.E., Brady, T.B., Peters, O.N., Guterres, A.T.,... Higgins, J. B. (2016). Effective Collaboration in Higher Education. Green Alpaca Press.
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Groups with abbreviations:
For the ﬁrst citation:
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)...
Or ...(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003).
For the subsequent citations:
Or ... (NIMH, 2003).
Groups with no abbreviation:
University of Guelph (2015)...
Or ... (University of Guelph, 2015).
Organization. (Date). Title (Report No. XXX). Publisher. DOI or URL
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... (Stevenson, 2003).
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… (J. R. Ewing, personal communication, November 16, 2003).
… (M. Li, lecture notes, POLS2000 Canadian Government, February 10, 2004).
Please see the full Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for guidance on how to respectfully cite Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples.
...(Database Name, date).
Author Last Name, First Name or Database Name. (YYYY, DD Month). Title. URL
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… (Alberts et al., 2003; Jones, 1998a, 1998b; Klevezal & Thompson, 1980; Sergeant, 1973, 1975; Stanford, 2001).
… (Studies of Alcohol, 1999).
... ("Effects of Alcoholism," 2015).
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Merriam-Webster.
… Brown's study (as cited in Smith, 1995, p. 14).
… several cases of "unusual side effects (Turner & Jones, 1989)" have been reported (Lamont, 2003, p.47).
Fortenbaugh, W.W. (2002). Aristotle on emotion: a contribution to philosophical psychology, rhetoric, poetics, politics, and ethics. (2nd ed.) Duckworth.
… (Alberts, 2001, Table 6).
… (Zelickson & Robbins, 1986, p. 24).
… (Brown & Jones, 2007, Conclusion section, para. 4).
… (Smith, n.d.).
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… (N. B. Smith, 2000; T. R. Smith, 1993).
N. B. Smith (2000) and T. R. Smith (1993) . . .
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… (Jones, 1965, 1973, 1988).
… (Jones, 1998a, 1998b).
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