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Cite Your Sources: Chicago Author-Date System: Start Here

Chicago Author-Date System

  • Uses the author and year in parentheses as the in-text citation and uses a reference list.
  • Preferred by many writers in the sciences and social sciences.
  • Information in the guide is based on the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style

In-text Citations

  • Author’s name and the year of publication enclosed in parentheses. 
    • (Smith 2010).
  • You do not need to repeat any elements that are already in your sentence.
    • As Novak and Gowin (1984) point out, children find concept maps useful for learning.
  • When referring to a specific section, include the page number.
    • Put simply, "to evaluate, we must have a clear notion of value" (Novak and Gowin 1984, 109)

Reference List

  • The reference list appears at the end of the paper.  
  • The title should be References or Works Cited.
  • It should include only sources that you cite in your assignment.
  • List your sources alphabetically by author's last name. First author should be listed by Last name, First name.
  • Entries are single spaced.
  • Use a hanging indent after the first line of the entry.
  • The reference list entry is structured similarly to the Bibliography (in Chicago Notes and Bibliography system), except that the publication date is the second element, following the author's name.

Book, One Author

In-text citation:

… was tested (Morton 2001).

Reference List:

Last Name, First Name. Date. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Morton, Desmond. 2001. A Short History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart.

An Article in a Journal or Periodical (Print)

In-text citation:

...(Flint and Lolcama 1986).

Reference List:

Last Name, First Name. Date. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #(no. #): page range.

Flint, Jean-Jacques, and J. Lolcama. 1986. “Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario.” Geological Society of America Bulletin 97(1): 221-32.

An Article in a Journal or Periodical (Online)

In-text citation:

... (Hom Carey 2004).

Reference List:

Last Name, First Name. Date. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume # (no. #): page range. Accessed date. doi/url.

Hom Carey, Stephanie. 2004. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31(1): 121-34. doi:10:48903243/342890.

  • Accessed date is usually considered unnecessary unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source. The DOI is preferred over the URL.

Part of an Edited Work or Collection

In-text citation:

...(Veal and Hudson 2009).

Reference List:

Last Name, First Name. Date. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by 1 Editor First Name Last Name and 2 Editor First Name Last Name, pp-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Veal, L. Ramon, and Sally Ann Hudson. 2009. "Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing." In Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, edited by Brian Huot and Peggy O'Neill, 13-17. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.

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