An in-text citation consists of the author’s name, the year of publication, and any specific page reference (if applicable), enclosed in parentheses. You do not need to repeat in parentheses any elements that are already in your sentence.
The entry in the Reference List provides the full bibliographic information for the work cited in the text. The main difference between an entry in a Reference List (for Chicago Author-Date system) and in a Bibliography (for Chicago Notes & Bibliography system) is the placement of the date.
… was tested (Morton 2001).
Last Name, First Name. Date. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Morton, Desmond. 2001. A Short History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart.
… (Elias and Williams 1996).
Elias and Williams (1996) tested...
... (Fowler, Aaron, and McArthur 2001).
Fowler, Aaron, and McArthur (2001) found...
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Las Nname. Date. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Lecy, Matthys, and Mario Salvadori. 2002. Why Buildings Fall Down. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
... (Healey et al. 1996).
According to Healey et al. (1996)...
Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name. Date. Title. #th ed. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Healey, Antonette, Joan Holland, David McDougall, Ian McDougall, Nancy Speirs, and Pauline Thompson. 1996. Dictionary of Old English: E. 6th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Statistics Canada. 1995. National Population Health Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
MCTU (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities). 2002. Employment Profile. Toronto: MTCU.
... (Rozanski 2002)
... (MTCU 2002)
Last Name, First Name. Date. Title of Report. Other Identification Information. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Rozanski, Mordechai. 2002. Investing in Public Education: Advancing the Goal of Continuous Improvement in Student Learning and Achievement. Prepared on behalf of the Education Equity Task Force. Toronto: Ministry of Education.
MTCU (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities). 2002. Employment Profile. Toronto: MCTU.
... (Soltes 1999).
Last Name, First Name, ed. Date. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Soltes, Ori Z., ed. 1999. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson.
John E. Smith wrote to the membership on January 13, 1733 (Smith Papers), to say…
The manuscript cookbook (Oliver, ca. 1916) contains…
The letter describes…. (Jones, n.d.).
Either Collection name / authors of the items in the collection / or the repository for the collection as Author Last, Author First. Name of collection. Name of repository, Location.
Abrahamson, Una. Canadian Cookery Collection. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Canada.
Smith, John E., Papers. University of Chicago Library.
Author of the item as Last name, First name. Date of item as Day Month Year. Title or description of item. Call number, File number, Box number. Name of collection. Name of repository, Location.
Oliver, E. J. ca. 1916. Manuscript cookbook. XM1 MS A117059. Una Abrahamson Canadian Cookery Collection. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Canada.
...(Veal and Hudson 2009).
Last Name, First Name. Date. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by 1 Editor First Name Last Name and 2 Editor First Name Last Name, pp-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Veal, L. Ramon, and Sally Ann Hudson. 2009. "Direct and Indirect Measures for Large-Scale Evaluation of Writing." In Assessing Writing: A Critical Sourcebook, edited by Brian Huot and Peggy O'Neill, 13-17. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's.
... (Hom Carey 2004).
Last Name, First Name. Date. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume # (no. #): page range. Accessed date. doi/url.
Hom Carey, Stephanie. 2004. “The Tourist Moment.” Annals of Tourism Research 31(1): 121-34. doi:10:48903243/342890.
...(Flint and Lolcama 1986).
Last Name, First Name. Date. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume #(no. #): page range.
Flint, Jean-Jacques, and J. Lolcama. 1986. “Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario.” Geological Society of America Bulletin 97(1): 221-32.
When the original date of publication is relevant to your discussion of the text, you can include it in square brackets. However, when the original date does not directly relate to your discussion, you may omit the original date and use the modern date.
Last Name, First Name. (Original Date) Modern Date. Title. Edition information. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Austen, Jane. (1811) 2001. Sense and Sensibility. Edited by Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton.
When the original date of publication does not directly relate to your discussion of the text, you can omit it and use the modern date. Another option is to include the original date at the end of the reference entry.
Rae, Douglas W. 1971. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Rae, Douglas W. 1971. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press. First published 1967.
As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”
Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, edition information (if any), day. URL (if online).
Pitman, Teresa. 2011. “Workshop Speaker Aims to Make Writing Easier.” at Guelph, February 10. http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2011/02/workshop-speaker-aims-to-make-writing-easier.
… (Rubio and Waterston 1985–2004, 4:263).
… (Tillich 1951–63, 1:133).
… (Rubio and Waterston 1998, 263).
… (Hayek 1995, 124–25).
Last Name, First Name. Date range of entire work. Title of Entire Work. # vols. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Rubio, Mary, and Elizabeth Waterston, eds. 1985–2004. The Selected Journals of L.M. Montgomery. 5 vols. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Tillich, Paul. 1951–63. Systematic Theology. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Last Name, First Name. Date of volume. Title of Volume. Vol. # of Title of Series. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date range of series [use an en-dash after the date of the first volume in the date range if the work has not yet been completed].
Rubio, Mary, and Elizabeth Waterston, eds. 1998. Volume IV: 1929–1935. Vol. 4 of The Selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985–2004.
Hayek, F. A. 1995. Contra Keynes and Cambridge: Essays, Correspondence. Vol. 9 of The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988–.
... (Google 2009).
Author of the content as Last Name, First Name. Date. “Title of the Page.” Date of access or revision. URL.
... (Nietzsche 1955).
Last Name, First Name. Date. Title. Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. 1955. Beyond Good and Evil. Translated by Marianne Cowan. Chicago: H. Regnery Co.
... (Winston and Blais 2003).
Last Name, First Name. Date. "Title of Article." In Title of the Course Reader, edited by Name of Instructor. Pages. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Winston, Andrew S., and Daniel J. Blais. 2003. “What Counts as an Experiment?: A Transdisciplinary Analysis of Textbooks, 1930-1970.” In PSYCH*1100 Principles of Behaviour Course Reader, edited by M. Billig and H. Davis. 3-19. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, Office of Open Learning. Previously published 1996 in American Journal of Psychology 109(4): 599-616.
... (Stengos 2003).
Treat these as books with the instructor as author (unless another author is indicated).
Stengos, T. 2003. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics Course Manual. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph.
... (Spring 2004).
Instructor’s Name. Year. “Title of Course.” Lecture, University Name, City, Province, Day of lecture.
Spring, Howard. 2004. “History of Jazz.” Lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, October 7.
In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .
... (John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
... (John Doe, pers. comm.)
In a posting by Nico Ween (author) to the Humanist Discussion Group (name of the mailing list) on August 5, 2004 (date), he said...
(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)
(A. P. Møller, unpublished data; C. R. Brown and M. B. Brown, unpublished data)
Albright, Madeleine. 2004. Interview by Jon Stewart. The Daily Show, Comedy Network, October 26.
Lukacs, John. 2003. “History in a Democratic Age.” Interviewed by Bruce Cole. Humanities 24, no. 1: 6-9, 46-50.
… (Novak and Gowin 1984, 109).
… (Garcia 1987, vol. 2).
... (Garcia 1987, 2:345).
... (Hellman 1998, under "The Battleground").
... (Smith, n.d.).
Jones, Arturo. n.d. The Race for Time. Carlesville: Worton.
… (Primary Colors 1998).
Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. 1998. New York: Random House.
... (C. Simpson 2010).
... (A. Simpson 2006).
In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981) ...
(Only Costello 1981 is included in the reference list.)
Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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