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Cite Your Sources: CSE (Citation-Name)

In-Text Citations

In-text citations in the C-N system are a superscripted number that represents the bibliographical entry in the end references. The following section explains what citation information should be included for various situations. 

End References

The reference list comes at the end of your paper and provides the full bibliographic information for your materials. Works you have cited within your paper should be listed in alphabetical order and assigned numbers in that order, with the list titled "References" or "Literature Cited." If you used other material but didn't specifically cite it, include it in a section called "Additional References."

The following examples show you how to format various kinds of reference list entries. The difference between the Citation-Name system described here and the Name-Year system described in another guide is in the placement and punctuation for the year of publication.

One or Two Authors

In-text citation:

… therefore, the theory was tested by Smith.1
… and in a study by Elias and Williams,2 similar results were found.

End Reference:

Author AA, Author BB. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication (State or Prov): Publisher name; Year. Number of pages p.

Agrios GN. Plant pathology. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1978. 703 p.

Davidson RH, Lyon WF. Insect pests of farm, garden, and orchard. 7th ed. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons; 1979. 596 p.

Three or More Authors

In-text citation:

… Lui et al. conducted similar research 3 showing....

End Reference:

  • List the first 10 authors, with the 10th author's initials followed by a comma and "et al."

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication (State or Prov): Publisher name; Year. Number of pages p.

 

Article in a Journal or Periodical (Print)

End Reference:

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal Title. Year;Volume number(issue number):inclusive pages.

Burns LH, Thorpe G. Fears and phobias. Journal of Internal Medical Research. 1979;17(2):235-246.

Article in a Journal or Periodical (Online)

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal Title (edition) [medium designator]. Date of publication [date updated; date cited];Volume(issue):inclusive pages. Available from: URL doi:#

Tong V, Abbott FS, Mbofana S, Walker MJ. In vitro investigation of hepatic extraction. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2001 May 3];4(1):15-23. Available from: http://www.ualberta.ca/~csps/JPPS4(1)/F.Abbot/RSD1070.pdf doi:10.1136/jpps.460.7600.1070

If there is no pagination in your online material, estimate how many pages it has:

Ganz PA. Menopause and breast cancer. Innovations in Breast Cancer Care [Internet]. 1997 Apr [cited 1997 Nov 4];2(3):[about 10 p.]. Available from http://www.meniscus.com/bcc/Art2_23.html/.

NOTE: When the reference ends with a URL, do not follow with a period unless the URL ends with a forward slash.

An Edited Book or Collection

Author AA, Author BB, editors. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher Name; Year. Number of pages p.

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York (NY): Pergamon; 1990. 1380 p. 

Part of an Edited Book or Collection

Author(s) of the part. Title of the part. In: Author(s) or Editor(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year. p. pages of part.

Kuret JA, Murad F. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York (NY): Pergamon; 1990. p. 1334-1360.

If the author of the part also is the author or editor of the book, place the book information before the part information.

Author(s) or Editor(s). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year. Kind of part and its numeration, title; p. pages of part.

Hebel R, Stromberg MW. Anatomy of the laboratory rat. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1976. Part C, Digestive system; p. 43-54.

Newspaper Article

End Reference:

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Newspaper title (edition). Date of publication;Section:beginning page of article (column number).

Rensberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. Washington Post. 1989 Aug 7;Sect. A:2 (col.5).

Organization/Group as Author

If there is a personal author and a group author, use the personal author. If not, use the organization name, and alphabetize the entry in the end references accordingly.

Heart & Stroke Foundation. Blood pressure action plan [Internet]. Ottawa (ON); 2008 [cited 2008 Aug 12]; [1 page]. Available from: http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.iklQLcMWJtE/b.3484475/.

Institute of Medicine (US). Legalized abortion and the public health: report of a study by a committee of the Institute of Medicine. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences (US); 1975.

Anonymous/No Author

When neither organization or author are known, consider carefully whether or not this source should be used.

  • Generally, an anonymous source is not an acceptable reference in a scientific report.
  • If an organization is listed, use this as the author. Please see Organization/Group as Author.

Omit author from reference, and begin with title. Do not use "Anonymous."

Protocol for sterile procedures. Toronto (ON): Association for Microbiological Standards; 2004. 35 p. 

Date Unknown

Smith RA. Health problems in the elderly. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons; [date unknown]. 315 p.

Unpublished Information

In-text citation:

Unpublished information that is not available to other scholars is indicated parenthetically in the text only, with a note indicating it is not in the References list.

Instead, add a "Notes" section at the end of your paper to provide further details about the communication, meeting, or materials, such as purpose, time, date, location, etc.

… (a 1998 Mar 26 e-mail from JR Ewing to me; unreferenced, see "Notes").
… (my 2004 Feb 17 notes from BIOL1030 lecture by T Dukator; unreferenced, see "Notes").

End Reference:

Include in the References list only those items that would be retrievable by other scholars (i.e., in a public archive such as a library).

  • If not retrievable, add a "Notes" section at the end of your paper to provide further detail. 
  • If retrievable but no title is available, construct one using the first few words of the document, and place it in square brackets. After the location information, include the library call number or other information.

For manuscripts:

Author(s). Title of material. Date. Physical description. Notes.

Darwin C. Letters to Sir William Jackson Hooker. 1963. 2 boxes. Located at: Archives, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London (England); MS L.4562.

For a conference:

Author(s). Title of paper. Paper presented at: Title of conference. Number and name of the conference; Date of the conference; Place of the conference.

Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. Anatomical shape representation in spine x-ray images. Paper presented at: VIIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; Benalmadena, Spain. 

Website Homepage

  • A homepage is the first or introductory page of a website.

Author(s). Title of homepage [medium designator]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; date of publication or copyright [date updated; date cited]. Available from: URL

  • If the homepage has no author, or if the organization is acting as both the author and publisher, begin with the homepage title and use the organization name as the publisher:

Title of homepage [medium designator]. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication or copyright [date updated; date cited]. Available from: URL

Plant pathology at the University of Wisconsin - Madison [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin - Madison, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences; c2011 [cited 2011 Jul 6]. Available from: http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/index.php

Parts and Contributions to Websites

  • You may need to cite a portion of a website that is NOT a homepage, journal article, or book. If there is an author of the part, use this pattern:

Author(s). Title of part. Title of homepage [medium designator]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication or copyright [date updated; date cited]; [extent of part]. Available from: URL

Lai A. Somnambulism (sleepwalking): asleep with your eyes wide open. End your sleep deprivation [Internet]. Stanford (CA): Stanford Sleep and Dreams; 2010 [2011 Jul 3];[about 7 screens]. Available from: http://www.end-your-sleep-deprivation.com/somnambulism.html

  • If there is no author for the part other than the author of the site, begin with the homepage citation:

Title of homepage [medium designator]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication or copyright. Title of part; date of publication of part [date updated; date cited]; [extent of part]. Available from: URL

Health Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2010. Nutrition and healthy eating; 2010 Feb 08 [cited 2011 Mar 8]; [1 screen]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/index-eng.php

Course Readers

In-text citation:

  • Use the article authors as authors (in the References list, use the date of the reader as the year of publication).

… in Winston and Blais's article on heat treatment 5....

End Reference:

  • Treat an article in a course reader as a "Part of an Edited Book or Collection," with the instructor of the course as editor.

Course Manuals

In-text citation:

  • Treat these as books with the instructor as author (unless another author is indicated).

End Reference:

  • Treat these as books, with the instructor as author (unless another author is indicated).

Stengos T. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics course manual. Guelph (ON): University of Guelph; 2003.

Lecture Notes

In-text citation:

Treat these as books if they are published, but as unpublished information if they are your own notes or are unpublished.

  • Course or lecture notes may be considered "published" only if they have been been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission.

End Reference:

Treat these as books if they are published, but as unpublished information if they are your own notes or are unpublished.

  • Lecture notes are considered published if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission.

Print:

Stengos T. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics course notes. Guelph (ON): University of Guelph; 2003.

Online:

Stengos T. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics course notes. [Internet]. Guelph (ON): University of Guelph; 2003 [cited 2003 Nov 23]. Available from http://www.uoguelph.ca/econometrics.htm

 

Personal Communications

Written personal communication such as letters and email should be cited within your paper and acknowledged in a "Notes" section, rather than being included in the References list (see example in section In-text Citations, under Unpublished Information).

A Secondary Source

In-text citation:

According to the CSE, you should never place in a reference list material that you have not seen.

  • When you want to cite a source based on information provided in another source, always obtain the original document or item to verify that the information is accurate.
  • If you are unable to locate the original, as in the example below, you need to cite the source that you actually did look at, but include enough information in your text to explain how you obtained the information.

… Brown 3 describes the results of a 1911 study by A. F. King in which X was found to absorb Y.

Your reference list will include Brown but not King.

End Reference:

A secondary source is one that discusses material originally presented elsewhere (i.e., in a primary source).

  • Try to obtain the original paper and cite it instead of the secondary source. If you can't obtain the original paper, cite in the References list only the secondary source that you actually read.

Multiple Sources, Same Author

If several pieces of information from Jones are being cited, place them in order numerically, separated by a comma with no space. Use a hyphen to represent three or more that appear sequentially (use a comma to separate only two in sequence). In the reference list, these will be listed alphabetically, according to the authors' names letter-by-letter and then the title.

 

… Jones conducted several studies.4,5,10-12

 

Multiple Sources, Different Authors

If your citation refers to different authors, provide the superscripted citations in numerical order following the same guidelines for spacing and punctuation as for Multiple Sources, Same Author, (see above). 

… Several landmark studies have been conducted on this topic.2,5,6,12,48-50,56

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